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In this study we use import penetration as a proxy for foreign competition in order to empirically analyze (1) the impact of foreign competition on managerial compensation, (2) differences in the impact between Germany and the U.S and (3) whether the impact of import penetration is driven by implied efficiency effects. We use data from the manufacturing industry covering the period from 1984-2010 for Germany respectively 1992-2011 for the U.S and apply system GMM in order to solve potentialdoi:10.2139/ssrn.3245141 fatcat:7euuaslzcjf6fjxttye5yq2bde