A Review on Stimuli-Actuated 3D Micro/Nanostructures for Tissue Engineering and the Potential of Laser-Direct Writing via Two-Photon Polymerization for Structure Fabrication

Bogdan Stefanita Calin, Irina Alexandra Paun
2022 International Journal of Molecular Sciences  
In this review, we present the most recent and relevant research that has been done regarding the fabrication of 3D micro/nanostructures for tissue engineering applications. First, we make an overview of 3D micro/nanostructures that act as backbone constructs where the seeded cells can attach, proliferate and differentiate towards the formation of new tissue. Then, we describe the fabrication of 3D micro/nanostructures that are able to control the cellular processes leading to faster tissue
more » ... neration, by actuation using topographical, mechanical, chemical, electric or magnetic stimuli. An in-depth analysis of the actuation of the 3D micro/nanostructures using each of the above-mentioned stimuli for controlling the behavior of the seeded cells is provided. For each type of stimulus, a particular recent application is presented and discussed, such as controlling the cell proliferation and avoiding the formation of a necrotic core (topographic stimulation), controlling the cell adhesion (nanostructuring), supporting the cell differentiation via nuclei deformation (mechanical stimulation), improving the osteogenesis (chemical and magnetic stimulation), controlled drug-delivery systems (electric stimulation) and fastening tissue formation (magnetic stimulation). The existing techniques used for the fabrication of such stimuli-actuated 3D micro/nanostructures, are briefly summarized. Special attention is dedicated to structures' fabrication using laser-assisted technologies. The performances of stimuli-actuated 3D micro/nanostructures fabricated by laser-direct writing via two-photon polymerization are particularly emphasized.
doi:10.3390/ijms232214270 pmid:36430752 pmcid:PMC9699325 fatcat:ihmufoma6rbrfgxzlpk3snrjbe