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We present a transmit diversity technique for the downlink of (wideband) direct-sequence (DS) code division multiple access (CDMA) systems. The technique, called space-time spreading (STS), improves the downlink performance by using a small number of antenna elements at the base and one or more antennas at the handset, in conjunction with a novel spreading scheme that is inspired by space-time codes. It spreads each signal in a balanced way over the transmitter antenna elements to providedoi:10.1109/49.909608 fatcat:4wxytpqyvjdndna6rq7em3pzx4