A transmitter diversity scheme for wideband CDMA systems based on space-time spreading

B. Hochwald, T.L. Marzetta, C.B. Papadias
2001 IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications  
We present a transmit diversity technique for the downlink of (wideband) direct-sequence (DS) code division multiple access (CDMA) systems. The technique, called space-time spreading (STS), improves the downlink performance by using a small number of antenna elements at the base and one or more antennas at the handset, in conjunction with a novel spreading scheme that is inspired by space-time codes. It spreads each signal in a balanced way over the transmitter antenna elements to provide
more » ... l path diversity at the receiver. In doing so, no extra spreading codes, transmit power, or channel information are required at the transmitter and only minimal extra hardware complexity at both sides of the link. Both our analysis and simulation results show significant performance gains over conventional single-antenna systems and other open-loop transmit diversity techniques. Our approach is a practical way to increase the bit rate and/or improve the quality and range in the downlink of either mobile or fixed CDMA systems. A STS-based proposal for the case of two transmitter and single-receiver antennas was recently accepted and will be included as an optional diversity mode in release A of the IS-2000 wideband CDMA standard.
doi:10.1109/49.909608 fatcat:4wxytpqyvjdndna6rq7em3pzx4