Resistance Rate Distribution Of MDR-TB Among Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients Attending Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital Nnewi And St Patrick's Hospital Mile 4 Abakiliki In Southeast Nigeria
Tuberculosis, one of the oldest recorded human afflictions, is still one of the biggest killers among the infectious diseases, despite the worldwide use of a live attenuated vaccine and several antibiotics. This study was designed to assess the resistance rate distribution of MDR-TB among pulmonary tuberculosis patients attending Nnamdi Azikiewe University Teaching Hospital (NAUTH) Nnewi and St Patrick's Hospital Mile 4 Abakaliki in the Southeast Nigeria. Patients with persistent cough for over
... two weeks were screened by Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) technique for the presence of acid fast bacilli (AFB) in their sputum and a total of 103 patients with AFB positive sputum samples were recruited. The positive sputum samples were subjected to Xpert MTB/RIF assay (GeneXpert®, Cepheid USA) and culture on Lowestein Jensen medium for 42days at 37°C. Drug susceptibility testing was done on the isolates using the nitrate reduction assay (NRA). Xpert MTB/RIF assay detected MTB in 83 (80.6%) samples out of which 45 (67.2%) were rifampicin resistant. Sixty-seven (80.7%) of the isolates were resistant to at least one of the first-line drugs. Primary resistance was 91% while 19.4%, 35.8%, 22.4% and 22.4% of the isolates were resistant to one, two, three and four drugs respectively. Isoniazid had the highest rate of resistance (57.8%) while Ethambutol had the least (34.9%) and 30 (44.8%) of the resistant isolates were MDR. Smoking (P=.002), gender (P=.002) and history of TB treatment (P=.012) were significantly associated with drug resistance. Educational status was significantly associated with MDR-TB (P=.020). NAUTH and St Patrick's hospital had MDR-TB rates of 38.9% and 46.9% respectively. The findings of this study indicate high prevalence of MDR-TB among patients with pulmonary TB in the study sites and this portrays a menace to adequate TB control. Prompt diagnosis of TB, adequate patient compliance to therapy and increased awareness and mass education is recommended.