Rapid and Blind Watermarking Approach of the 3D Objects Using QR Code Images for Securing Copyright

Hanan S. Al-Saadi, Ahmed Elhadad, A. Ghareeb, Ahmed Mostafa Khalil
2021 Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience  
Watermarking techniques in a wide range of digital media was utilized as a host cover to hide or embed a piece of information message in such a way that it is invisible to a human observer. This study aims to develop an enhanced rapid and blind method for producing a watermarked 3D object using QR code images with high imperceptibility and transparency. The proposed method is based on the spatial domain, and it starts with converting the 3D object triangles from the three-dimensional Cartesian
more » ... oordinate system to the two-dimensional coordinates domain using the corresponding transformation matrix. Then, it applies a direct modification on the third vertex point of each triangle. Each triangle's coordinates in the 3D object can be used to embed one pixel from the QR code image. In the extraction process, the QR code pixels can be successfully extracted without the need for the original image. The imperceptibly and the transparency performances of the proposed watermarking algorithm were evaluated using Euclidean distance, Manhattan distance, cosine distance, and the correlation distance values. The proposed method was tested under various filtering attacks, such as rotation, scaling, and translation. The proposed watermarking method improved the robustness and visibility of extracting the QR code image. The results reveal that the proposed watermarking method yields watermarked 3D objects with excellent execution time, imperceptibility, and robustness to common filtering attacks.
doi:10.1155/2021/2236866 pmid:34824574 pmcid:PMC8610678 fatcat:fywj24rreneijh2cjlj6y5bmgu