UJI EKSTRAK ETANOL KUMIS KUCING (Orthosiphon sp.) SEBAGAI PENGAWET ALAMI KAYU

Abdul Azis, T Prayitno, Sutjipto Hadikusumo, Mahdi Santoso, Bagian Hasil, Hutan Fakultas, Kehutanan Universitas, Gadjah Mada, Jurusan Fakultas, Pertanian Universitas, Palangka Raya
unpublished
The utilization of plants as a natural preservative agent of wood has not much been explored although the amount and kind of plants are relatively abundant. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of the extract of kumis kucing (Orthosiphon sp.) plant at the extract concentration to solvent of 1:12 , 1:8 and 1:4 against the dry wood termites (Cryptotermes sp.). The tested parameters were termite mortality, mass loss, and degree of damage of the test samples (filter paper). Research was
more » ... er). Research was carried out by impregnating the ethanol extract of the leaves and twigs mixtures in the filter papers and then the papers were fed to dry-wood termites. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance. The analysis of variance showed that treatment concentration has a highly significant effect to the mortality levels of the termites. Further, at the concentration of 1:4, the extract exhibited the highest efficacy (mortality of 65 % and mass loss of 2.71 %) and the lowest levels were shown by the controls or 0 (zero) concentration (mortality of 1 % and mass loss of 37.86 %). The concentration of the extract also affected the degree of damage. The higher the concentration, the lower the degree of damage that occurred. The degree of damage due to termite attacks at the treatment from the lowest (1:12) to the highest (1:4) concentration could be classified as heavy to light. Thus, ethanol extract of the kumis kucing at concentration of 1:4 is potent for wood preservatives because it could reduce the degradation of cellulosic materials due to dry wood termites. INTISARI Pemanfaatan tumbuhan belum banyak dilakukan sebagai bahan alami pengawet kayu padahal jumlah dan jenisnya cukup melimpah. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efektifitas ekstrak etanol tumbuhan kumis kucing (Orthosiphon sp.) pada konsentrasi ekstrak terhadap pelarut 1:12, 1:8 dan 1:4 terhadap mortalitas rayap kayu kering (Cryptotermes sp.), pengurangan berat dan derajat kerusakan contoh uji (kertas saring) dalam rangka aplikasinya sebagai pengawet alami kayu. Penelitian dilakukan dengan mengimpregnasi ekstrak etanol campuran daun dan ranting kumis kucing pada kertas saring lalu diumpankan pada rayap kayu kering. Data penelitian dianalisis dengan analisis varian. Analisis varian menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan konsentrasi berpengaruh sangat nyata terhadap mortalitas rayap kayu kering. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak etanol kumis kucing pada konsentrasi 1:4 menunjukkan efektifitas paling tinggi (mortalitas rayap kayu kering sebesar 65 % dan pengurangan berat contoh uji 2,71 %) dan terendah ditunjukkan oleh kontrol atau konsentrasi 0 (mortalitas rayap sebesar 1 % dan pengurangan berat 37,86 %). Konsentrasi ekstrak juga mempengaruhi besar derajat kerusakan. Semakin tinggi konsentrasi maka semakin rendah derajat kerusakan yang terjadi. Derajat kerusakan pada perlakuan dengan konsentrasi terendah (1:12) hingga tertinggi (1:4), serangan rayapnya dapat digolongkan sebagai berat hingga ringan.
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