Developing automated methods for disease subtyping in UK Biobank: an exemplar study on stroke

Kristiina Rannikmäe, Honghan Wu, Steven Tominey, William Whiteley, Naomi Allen, Cathie Sudlow, the UK Biobank
2021 BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making  
Background Better phenotyping of routinely collected coded data would be useful for research and health improvement. For example, the precision of coded data for hemorrhagic stroke (intracerebral hemorrhage [ICH] and subarachnoid hemorrhage [SAH]) may be as poor as < 50%. This work aimed to investigate the feasibility and added value of automated methods applied to clinical radiology reports to improve stroke subtyping. Methods From a sub-population of 17,249 Scottish UK Biobank participants,
more » ... ascertained those with an incident stroke code in hospital, death record or primary care administrative data by September 2015, and ≥ 1 clinical brain scan report. We used a combination of natural language processing and clinical knowledge inference on brain scan reports to assign a stroke subtype (ischemic vs ICH vs SAH) for each participant and assessed performance by precision and recall at entity and patient levels. Results Of 225 participants with an incident stroke code, 207 had a relevant brain scan report and were included in this study. Entity level precision and recall ranged from 78 to 100%. Automated methods showed precision and recall at patient level that were very good for ICH (both 89%), good for SAH (both 82%), but, as expected, lower for ischemic stroke (73%, and 64%, respectively), suggesting coded data remains the preferred method for identifying the latter stroke subtype. Conclusions Our automated method applied to radiology reports provides a feasible, scalable and accurate solution to improve disease subtyping when used in conjunction with administrative coded health data. Future research should validate these findings in a different population setting.
doi:10.1186/s12911-021-01556-0 pmid:34130677 pmcid:PMC8204419 fatcat:rzrps6picjdttkajpfk5aktm2a