Three-dimensional bubble clusters: Shape, packing, and growth rate

S. J. Cox, F. Graner
2004 Physical Review E  
We consider three-dimensional clusters of identical bubbles packed around a central bubble and calculate their energy and optimal shape. We obtain the surface area and bubble pressures to improve on existing growth laws for three-dimensional bubble clusters. We discuss the possible number of bubbles that can be packed around a central one: the "kissing problem", here adapted to deformable objects.
doi:10.1103/physreve.69.031409 pmid:15089296 fatcat:ba3w73x4hbdlzk733icypuxkxq