High-Resolution Late Gadolinium Enhancement Magnetic Resonance for the Diagnosis of Myocardial Infarction With Nonobstructed Coronary Arteries
JACC Cardiovascular Imaging
The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic yield of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) including high-resolution (HR) late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) imaging using a 3-dimensional respiratory-navigated method in patients with myocardial infarction with nonobstructed coronary arteries (MINOCA). CMR plays a pivotal role for the diagnosis of patients with MINOCA. However, the diagnosis remains inconclusive in a significant number of patients, the results of CMR being either negative or
... her negative or uncertain (i.e., compatible with multiple diagnoses). Consecutive patients categorized as having MINOCA after blood testing, electrocardiography, coronary angiography, and echocardiography underwent conventional CMR, including cine, T2-weighted, first-pass perfusion, and conventional breath-held LGE imaging. HR LGE imaging using a free-breathing method allowing improved spatial resolution (voxel size 1.25 × 1.25 × 2.5mm) was added to the protocol when the results of conventional CMR were inconclusive and was optional otherwise. Diagnoses retained after reviewing conventional CMR were compared with those retained after the addition of HR LGE imaging. From 2013 to 2016, 229 patients were included (mean age 56 ± 17 years, 45% women). HR LGE imaging was performed in 172 patients (75%). In this subpopulation, definite diagnoses were retained after conventional CMR in 86 patients (50%): infarction in 39 (23%), myocarditis in 32 (19%), takotsubo cardiomyopathy in 13 (8%), and other diagnoses in 2 (1%). In the remaining 86 patients (50%), results of CMR were inconclusive: negative in 54 (31%) and consistent with multiple diagnoses in 32 (19%). HR LGE imaging led to changes in final diagnosis in 45 patients (26%) and to a lower rate of inconclusive final diagnosis (29%) (p < 0.001). In particular, HR LGE imaging could reveal or ascertain the diagnosis of infarction in 14% and rule out the diagnosis of infarction in 12%. HR LGE imaging was particularly useful when the results of transthoracic echocardiography, ventriculography, and conventional CMR were negative, with a 48% rate of modified diagnosis in this subpopulation. HR LGE imaging has high diagnostic value in patients with MINOCA and inconclusive findings on conventional CMR. This has major diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic implications.