Remodeling tumor immune microenvironment (TIME) for glioma therapy using multi-targeting liposomal codelivery
Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer
BackgroundGlioblastoma (GBM) treatment is undermined by the suppressive tumor immune microenvironment (TIME). Seek for effective methods for brain TIME modulation is a pressing need. However, there are two major challenges against achieving the goal: first, to screen the effective drugs with TIME-remodeling functions and, second, to develop a brain targeting system for delivering the drugs.MethodsIn this study, an α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs)-binding peptide DCDX was used to
... DCDX was used to modify the codelivery liposomes to achieve a 'three-birds-one-stone' delivery strategy, that is, multi-targeting the glioma vessel endothelium, glioma cells, and tumor-associated macrophages that all overexpressed α7 nAChRs. A brain-targeted liposomal honokiol and disulfiram/copper codelivery system (CDX-LIPO) was developed for combination therapy via regulating mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) pathway for remodeling tumor metabolism and TIME. Honokiol can yield a synergistic effect with disulfiram/copper for anti-GBM.ResultsIt was demonstrated that CDX-LIPO remarkably triggered tumor cell autophagy and induced immunogenic cell death, and meanwhile, activated the tumor-infiltrating macrophage and dendritic cells, and primed T and NK (natural killer) cells, resulting in antitumor immunity and tumor regression. Moreover, CDX-LIPO promoted M1-macrophage polarization and facilitated mTOR-mediated reprogramming of glucose metabolism in glioma.ConclusionThis study developed a potential combinatory therapeutic strategy by regulation of TIME and a 'three-birds-one-stone'-like glioma-targeting drug delivery system.