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Spontaneously emerging cortical maps related to the functional architecture of visual cortex have been observed initially in anesthetized cats and, subsequently, in monkey, albeit only under certain anesthetic regimes, and not in the awake state. Here we propose a network model that can accommodate these diverse findings. The model identifies two crucial determinants for the emergence of spontaneous map-like activity - local balance between excitatory and inhibitory activity, and the strengthdoi:10.1101/764068 fatcat:ji34evagl5hijhiircxudmtzpa