Serum exosomal hnRNPH1 mRNA as a novel marker for hepatocellular carcinoma
Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine
Background: Distinctive exosomal contents could be useful for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. However, little is known about whether serum exosomal heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein H1 (hnRNPH1) mRNA is a satisfactory biomarker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: Two hundred and ninety-one participants divided into four age- and gender-matched groups, including a HCC group (n=88), a liver cirrhosis (LC) group (n=67), a chronic hepatitis B (CHB) group (n=68) and a healthy control
... a healthy control group (n=68), were enrolled. Serum exosomal hnRNPH1 mRNA and GAPDH mRNA were measured using TaqMan real-time PCR, and the relative expression levels were calculated. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to evaluate the effectiveness of hnRNPH1 mRNA alone and in combination with α-fetoprotein (AFP) in the diagnosis of HCC. The correlation between hnRNPH1 mRNA levels and clinicopathological characteristics and overall survival (OS) in HCC was determined. Results: The serum exosomal hnRNPH1 mRNA levels in HCC patients were remarkably higher than in the other groups (p<0.05). The hnRNPH1 mRNA discriminated HCC from CHB with an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.865, with sensitivity of 85.2% and specificity of 76.5% at cut-off value of 0.670. The AUC for hnRNPH1 mRNA in combination with AFP was further improved. The exosomal hnRNPH1 mRNA levels in HCC patients were associated with the Child-Pugh classification, portal vein tumor emboli, lymph node metastasis, TNM stage and OS (p<0.05). Conclusions: These findings suggested that serum exosomal hnRNPH1 mRNA could be an effective marker for HCC in high HBV prevalence areas.