INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CONSERVATION SCIENCE THE VERMEILLONNER, AN ORIGINAL SEVENTEENTH CENTURY FRENCH GILDING TECHNIQUE, ALSO USED IN SPAIN (BRONCEADO) AND PORTUGAL (FOSCADO) DURING THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY

Carlos Nodal, Irina Crina, Anca Sandu, Rita Veiga
2015 Special Issue   unpublished
This paper aims to present a typical matte finish coating made with a tinted glaze applied to gilding found on late Baroque and Rococo polychrome altarpieces in Spain and Portugal dating from the mid eighteenth century. This practice is poorly studied in Portuguese historiography. In order to characterize this particular technique, it was necessary to consult earlier baroque treatises on art, as well as numerous contemporary gilding contracts signed during the eighteenth century in Spain and
more » ... ury in Spain and Portugal. This technique is known as 'Vermeillonner', which consists of applying a transparent glaze of 'vermeil' over gold leaf. This term is popularized in France in the eighteenth century, though 'Bronceado' ('bronzed', because of having a bronze-like color) is used in Spanish or 'Foscado' ('matted', because the surface layer provides a matte appearance to the gilding) in Portuguese. New researches have allowed establishing the origins of the technique in a French treatise of 1679.
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