Measuring Tobacco Specific Lung Carcinogen among Nonsmoking Hospitality Workers in Richmond Virginia: A Preliminary Evaluation of Exposure before the Smoking Ban
Tobacco Use Insights
The purpose of this pilot study is to measure the exposure to SHS among Richmond bar and restaurant workers and identify the prevalence of the tobacco-specific lung carcinogen-4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNAL) among nonsmoking bar and restaurants workers. Hair and urine samples were obtained from 40 nonsmoking bar and restaurant workers from Richmond establishments that do not have smoke free policies. Workers' exposure to SHS was estimated through measuring nicotine
... ng nicotine concentration in hair (NG/MG). Self-reported tobacco use was assessed in addition to performing urine analysis and listing sources and intensity of SHS exposure. Urine specimens were analyzed for total NNAL. Results: Hair nicotine ranged from 0.05 to 42.15 ng/mg among workers with an average of 23.3 hours of self reported exposure in workplaces where smoking was permitted, indicating that workers in smoking restaurants and bars are exposed to SHS. Also, 60% of workers had a detectable level of NNAL that ranged from 0.019 to 1.9 PMol/ML. Increased levels of NNAL were mostly associated with the number of continuous hours of a single workplace exposure. In the city of Richmond, most bar and restaurant workers are continuously exposed to SHS in their workplace. To achieve complete protection for all workers and patrons in Richmond, Virginia, smoke free initiatives in all occupational settings are required. This information can be used to advocate for smoke free policies when discussing potential ways to strengthen the law.