Das päpstliche Amtsverständnis Nikolaus' I. in seiner Briefkorrespondenz : Das Verhältnis zu weltlichen Herrschern sowie dem Episkopat im Ehestreit Lothars II. und im Photianischen Schisma

Cordula Christgau
2019
The present master's thesis examines which papal concept of ministry Nicholas I. shows in his correspondence by letter with secular sovereigns and the episcopacy. This analysis is particularly interesting for the papal research, as the extension of the papacy's primacy is generally located for the first time in the days of the so-called Investiture Controversy. The study however reveals that the papal supremacy already appears in the Early Middle Ages under Nicholas I. In doing so, the paper
more » ... ng so, the paper concentrates on comparing two significant events within his pontificate: The marital dispute of Lothair II. and the Photian schism. This paper examines in both cases relations to a secular sovereign, i.e. Lothair II. of Lotharingia respectively Michael III., Byzantine Emperor, and to their territorial episcopacy. Considering the clergy, a further constraint is necessary. On the western side only the incidents in matters of the dismissal of the bishops Gunther of Cologne and Theotgaud of Trier are analysed, whereas in the east the immediate communication with the Patriarch Photios of Constantinople is explored. As the papacy's self-conception can mainly be derived from the direct contact to the involved parties, its Latin letters are the main source to analyse the papal primacy entirely. The focal point here is set on the papal writings, whereby the reciprocal communication has to be examined as well in order to verify the respective counterpart's acceptance of the pre-eminence. Finally, it can be observed that Nicholas I. expresses similar conceptions of his primacy towards sovereigns and the clergy in East and West. However, due to the strong resistance in particular on the side of the eastern monarch and because of the comparatively long communication channels in Byzantium he cannot implement his claims as desired. In Francia this works quite well because of appealing the pope as conciliator. Particularly with regard to the ecclesiastical hierarchy, Nicholas I. contributes significantly to the papal primacy in such a way th [...]
doi:10.25593/978-3-96147-193-5 fatcat:pqf62b2mlnafhefgvh4vwbxd5y