Lexical Geography of U.S. Spanish. About Anglicism
Informes del Observatorio / Observatorio Reports
Lingustic geography of large spreading anglicisms from the data obtained from a survey to Hispanic respondents from all over the U.S. In relation to the concept of "U.S. Spanish," this study reveals both the existence of characteristic features of Spanish commonly used in the United States, and the acceptance of a variety of the Spanish language or characteristic of this territory. This Spanish of the United States, conceived in its generality, includes internal varieties or subvarieties, all
... them in more or less intense contact with English, between which the two main groups can be distinguished: a) a subvariety that would be acquired through the family, but also in school, and would be used in broader and broader community contexts, in national labor communications and, although with orality predominance, also could be written manifestations, with a more or less pronounced influence of the English, to which we can give the name of general U.S. Spanish or Spanish; and (b) a subvariety, which would be acquired exclusively orally and would be used in local community contexts, in family communication, in work groups and predominantly in oral manifestations, where the influence of English would become more evident in the form of alternating languages, borrowings and calques used intensively, and that usually receives the label of Spanglish or Espanglish. U.S. Spanish as a whole would have the defining, but not exclusive, characteristics of the influence of English, the convergence or leveling between varieties of Spanish from different Hispanic territories and, finally, its regionalization, based on historical and sociological reasons (Moreno-Fernández © Francisco Moreno-Fernández Lexical Geography of U.S. Spanish. About Anglicism Informes del Observatorio / Observatorio Reports. 034-10/2017EN 4 2017). As regards the nature of Anglicisms, an analysis of one hundred Anglicisms commonly used in Spanish in the United States reveals that one third are voices that maintain their original English form (eg. downtown, high school, hoover, landlord, lease, teenager, transcript, yard sale); one fifth are specific meanings of U.S. Spanish, although the voice is more generally used in Spanish (eg.