Tibetan re in its wider context
Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies
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... to Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. In a previous article 1 I had dealt with Tibetan re in ha-re 2 and re-skan.3 In attempting to study re in its wider context I wish to exclude from consideration re in re-ba 'to hope' and re in re-iig (re-dig) 'little while, moment '.4 re in re-ba does not seem to call for any special comment. As far as re in re-iig is concerned, it may suffice here to stress the identity of re in re-iig with re in ga-re 'where ? ' on the one hand, and re in re-re 'each' on the other. All three cases pre-suppose the basic meaning of 'part, member, item, etc.'. The specialization in time of re-iig (part = moment) has its spatial counterpart in ga-re (what part, which part(s)? = where ?), ga being identical with ga in ga-na 'where' or in ga-la introducing a rhetorical question (where [in all the world] ?). In re-re the distributive function is due to repetition 5 (item by item, member [of a group] by member), obviously extended from there also to single re in the meaning of' each'. I re in na-re As is well known, na-re introduces direct speech.6 J~ischke, in the entry na-re of his Dictionary 7 has already warned us against regarding it as a verb : 'by form and position an adv[erb], like hdi-skad-du '. Its non-verbal nature has also been stressed by J. Bacot: 'Expression non verbale signifiant "il dit" '.*8 Bacot has refrained, however, from giving any further explanation. There are indeed a number of grammatical observations which speak against defining na-re as a verb. (1) At the end of the direct speech, which is marked by ces (des, ies), corresponding to Skt. iti, we witness smras(-so), zer ( -ro), or a similar verb of saying (or asking [dris-so]). The introduction of the direct speech by a verb of saying would be tautological. Though examples of such tautological usage (smras-pa 1 ' The Tibetan particle re ', BSOAS, xxx, 1, 1967, 117-26. 2 The occurrence of skye-ha-re in a passage of the Tibetan translation of the Avadanadatalcka which is practically identical with example 3 of the previous article (see p. 120) [N, mDo, Ha, 205A7] enables us to omit the asterisking of ha-re. 3 See below, p. 560. 4 Note also re-c'uA-na occurring in the same meaning in the bTsun-mo-bkahi t'aA-yig (see B. Laufer, Der Roman einer tibetischen K6nigin, Leipzig, 1912, p. 223, n. 3). Cf. also M. Hofinger, Le Congrks du Lac Anavatapta, Louvain, 1954, p. 182, n. 4. 5 cf. the distributive function due to repetition in the case of numerals (see, e.g., H. A. Jitschke, Tibetan grammar [with 'Addenda' by A. H. Francke, assisted by W. Simon], Berlin, 1929, ? 21, p. 33), or in so-so 'singly, individually' (literally 'place by place '). 6 The identification of na-re with Skt. nanu (see J. Nobel, Udrayaia, K6nig von Roruka. ii. W6rterbuch, Wiesbaden, 1955, 43 [included also in Professor Lokesh Chandra's Tibetan-Sanskrit dictionary, vii, New Delhi, 1960, 1333]) is untenable. SLondon, 1881 (or later reprints), 300. 8 Grammaire du tibitain littiraire. ii. Index morphologique, Paris, 1948, 65.