Brain permeable AMPK activator R481 raises glycemia by autonomic nervous system activation and amplifies the counterregulatory response to hypoglycemia in rats [article]

Ana Miguel Cruz, Yasaman Malekizadeh, Julia Melanie Vlachaki Walker, Paul G Weightman Potter, Katherine R Pye, Simon J Shaw, Kate LJ Ellacott, Craig Beall
2019 bioRxiv   pre-print
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a critical cellular and whole body energy sensor activated by energy stress, including hypoglycemia, which is frequently experienced by people with diabetes. Previous studies using direct delivery of an AMPK activator to the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) in rodents increased hepatic glucose production. Moreover, recurrent glucoprivation in the hypothalamus leads to blunted AMPK activation and defective hormonal responses to subsequent hypoglycemia. These
more » ... hypoglycemia. These data suggest that amplifying AMPK activation may prevent or reduce frequency hypoglycemia in diabetes. We used a novel brain-permeable AMPK activator, R481, which potently increased AMPK phosphorylation in vitro. R481 significantly increased peak glucose levels during glucose tolerance tests in rats, which were attenuated by treatment with AMPK inhibitor SBI-0206965 and completely abolished by blockade of the autonomic nervous system. This occurred without altering insulin sensitivity measured by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps. Endogenous insulin secretion was not altered by R481 treatment. During hyperinsulinemic-hypoglycemic clamp studies, R481 treatment reduced exogenous glucose requirements and amplified peak glucagon levels during hypoglycemia. These data demonstrate that peripheral administration of the brain permeable AMPK activator R481 amplifies the counterregulatory response to hypoglycemia in rats, which could have clinical relevance for prevention of hypoglycemia.
doi:10.1101/749929 fatcat:cl4fybfjyzdpvhkoj7rg4jonei