Introducing breathlessness as a significant animal welfare issue

NJ Beausoleil, DJ Mellor
2014 New Zealand Veterinary Journal  
Breathlessness is a negative affective experience relating to respiration, the animal welfare significance of which has largely been underestimated in the veterinary and animal welfare sciences. In this review, we draw attention to the negative impact that breathlessness can have on the welfare of individual animals and to the wide range of situations in which mammals may experience breathlessness. At least three qualitatively distinct sensations of breathlessness are recognised in human
more » ... erespiratory effort, air hunger and chest tightnessand each of these reflects comparison by cerebral cortical processing of
doi:10.1080/00480169.2014.940410 pmid:25004795 fatcat:wvcxbjktvnbenh4fb3vwfbeuem