Ketoanalogs' Effects on Intestinal Microbiota Modulation and Uremic Toxins Serum Levels in Chronic Kidney Disease (Medika2 Study)
Journal of Clinical Medicine
Nutritional therapy (NT) is a therapeutic option in the conservative treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients to delay the start of dialysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the specific effect of ketoanalogs (KA)-supplemented diets for gut microbiota modulation. In a previous study we observed that the Mediterranean diet (MD) and a KA-supplemented very-low-protein diet (VLPD) modulated beneficially gut microbiota, reducing indoxyl- and p-cresyl-sulfate (IS, PCS) serum levels,
... d ameliorating the intestinal permeability in CKD patients. In the current study, we added a third diet regimen consisting of KA-supplemented MD. Forty-three patients with CKD grades 3B–4 continuing the crossover clinical trial were assigned to six months of KA-supplemented MD (MD + KA). Compared to MD, KA-supplementation in MD + KA determined (i) a decrease of Clostridiaceae, Methanobacteriaceae, Prevotellaceae, and Lactobacillaceae while Bacteroidaceae and Lachnospiraceae increased; (ii) a reduction of total and free IS and PCS compared to a free diet (FD)—more than the MD, but not as effectively as the VLPD. These results further clarify the driving role of urea levels in regulating gut integrity status and demonstrating that the reduction of azotemia produced by KA-supplemented VLPD was more effective than KA-supplemented MD in gut microbiota modulation mainly due to the effect of the drastic reduction of protein intake rather than the effect of KA.