Origin and Therapeutic Strategies for Ectopic Bone Formation in Skeletal Muscle

Kunihiro Tsuchida
2013 Human Genetics & Embryology  
Heterotopic ossification (HO) is caused by trauma, neurogenic insults, and genetic disorders. Recent detailed analyses have revealed a cellular origin for ectopic bone formation as novel mesenchymal progenitors. The differentiation of these into osteogenic lineages is induced by a pathological microenvironment in soft tissues outside the skeletal tissue, which includes inflammation. Multiple therapeutic strategies for preventing ectopic bone formation have recently emerged, including inhibition
more » ... of bone morphogenetic protein signaling and retinoid signaling.
doi:10.4172/2161-0436.1000110 fatcat:4m3bv4acyza4np6nmcnjbqgpp4