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In this paper, we have proposed speculative locking (SL) protocols to improve the performance of distributed database systems (DDBSs) by trading extra processing resources. In SL, a transaction releases the lock on the data object whenever it produces corresponding after-image during its execution. By accessing both before and after-images, the waiting transaction carries out speculative executions and retains one execution based on the termination (commit or abort) mode of the precedingdoi:10.1109/tkde.2004.1269595 fatcat:7iitgy2xdzbl7ajz5pagjptzly