Schistosomiasis Associated Glomerulopathy (Glomerulonephristis / Nephrotic Syndrome): A review and Update of the Literature
Anthony Kodzo-Grey Venyo, Auctores Publishing LLC
General medicine and Clinical Practice
Schistosomiasis may affect a number of organs within the human body. Schistosomiasis may also be associated with glomerular disease of the kidney in the form of glomerulonephritis and nephrotic syndrome. The association between Schistosomiasis and glomerulopathy may not be well known by a number of practitioners and its pathophysiology may not be very well understood and this could be due to the underdiagnosis of the disease due to the possibility of lack of facilities within the
... endemic areas of the world especially within tropical Africa. Nevertheless, there are a number of patterns of renal involvement in Schistosomiasis which include (a) upper urinary tract sequelae of lower urinary tract Schistosomiasis pathology, (b) immune-related glomerulonephritis, (c) as well as oxidant-stress-mediated renal tubular glomerulonephritis. The renal involvement by Schistosomiasis does tend to be ensued by the development of Schistosomiasis-associated Glomerulopathy (Glomerulonephritis / Nephrotic Syndrome) of varying severity. Individuals affected by Schistosomiasis-associated kidney disease may develop (a) asymptomatic disease which tends to related to self-limited and asymptomatic glomerular disease (b) symptomatic disease which most commonly would tend to present with nephrotic syndrome most often in patients who develop hepato-splenic schistosomiasis with liver fibrosis associated with Schistosoma mansoni infection. Symptomatic patients tend to develop severe hypo-proteinemia, half of the patients tend to have elevated blood pressure. In the absence of nephrotic syndrome, patients who have Schistosomiasis-associated glomerulopathy may manifest with: (a) isolated non-nephrotic syndrome proteinuria (b) acute glomerulonephritis associated with haematuria and heavy proteinuria, (c) Nephrotic syndrome together with systemic manifestations of co-infection with salmonella (class II) or hepatitis C virus (Class I), (d) End stage renal disease (ESRD). Some of the patients who have Schistosomiasis of the kidney may present with Haematuria, Hypertension, Hepato-splenic Schistosomiasis. The diagnosis should be suspected with regard to the following scenarios: (a) clinical suspicion in a patient with kidney disease who is known or has been known to have Schistosoma mansoni; (b) exposure to an endemic area, (c) clinical evidence / demonstration of chronic hepatosplenic schistosomiasis, (d) if the patient has not been diagnosed as having been afflicted with schistosomiasis, then schistosomal infection should be documented, (e) majority of patients with schistosomiasis and kidney disease should have kidney biopsy. (f) The patients should be evaluated for co-infection with salmonella, hepatitis C virus, and hepatitis B virus in order to ensure adequate treatment of the disease. Schistosomiasis is the second most devastating tropical parasitic disease globally which tends to be responsible for many urological complications. Nevertheless, glomerular injury is an uncommon complication which has mainly or most often described with Schistosoma Mansoni. When patients who have Schistosomiasis-associated Kidney disease are managed and followed-up on long-term basis with renal end points, one third of the patients independent of the histopathology examination features of the kidney biopsies would tend to progress dialysis. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) is an uncommon complication associated with Schistosoma Haematobium infection which tends to be associated with potentially poor prognosis. MPGN could lead quickly to End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD). Anti-helminthic and immunosuppressive medicaments tend not to be effective at advanced stages of the disease and hence efforts need to be focused upon the prevention, early detection, as well as treatment of Schistosoma infections among at-risk groups of individuals. In order to reduce morbidity related to Schistosoma-associated nephropathy, public health policy, should be concentrated upon the prevention of the disease by the control of snail, improved sanitation, and health education, as well as by the implementation, and sustenance of chemotherapy-based control strategies. Considering that many individuals are found yearly to be inflicted by Schistosomiasis who tend to dwell in more rural parts of their countries where facilities for the undertaking of renal function tests and biopsies of the kidney tend not to be readily available, there is the likelihood that Schistosomiasis-associated nephropathies may be highly underdiagnosed globally.