Semi-field and field studies on the efficacy of monomolecular surface film (Agnique®) against immature mosquitoes in the malarious areas of Iran
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease
Objective: To investigate the efficacy of monomolecular surface film (Agnique® MMF) as a new method against immature stages of Anopheles mosquitoes in an malaria-endemic area. Methods: Semi-field and field trials were designed to evaluate the efficacy of Agnique® MMF as a mosquito control method in Hormozgan Province, Iran. Results: In the semi-field trial, larval density was significantly reduced (91.80%) within 72 h post treatment with 0.47 mL/m 2 of MMF. The results showed 100% inhibition of
... 100% inhibition of adult emergence at 0.47 mL/m 2 for up to three weeks. Indeed, pupae were completely eliminated from all artificial ponds within one week post-treatment. In the field trial, An. stephensi with the frequency of 44% was the dominant species. Other collected species were An. d'thali (18%), An. turkhudi (12%), An. moghulensis (10%), An. superpictus (8%), An. culicifacies (5%), and An. fluviatilis (3%). In natural breeding places, 68.93% and 77% reductions were observed in larval density within 72 h post treatment with 0.47 and 0.94 mL/m 2 dosages, respectively. Conclusions: In conclusion, MMF with the dosage of 0.47 mL/m 2 could be practically used as an effective larvicide against anopheline mosquitoes in malarious areas of Iran and other countries in the Middle East. MMF not only is an efficient mosquito and midge larvicide and pupicide, but also can be used as a main component of an Integrated Vector Management (IVM) strategy for controlling the vectors of mosquito-borne diseases.