Neuronal Apoptosis by Apolipoprotein E4 through Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein and Heterotrimeric GTPases
Journal of Neuroscience
The ⑀4 genotype of apolipoprotein E (apoE4) is the most established predisposing factor in Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, it remains unclear how apoE4 contributes to the pathophysiology. Here, we report that the apoE4 protein (ApoE4) evokes apoptosis in neuronal cells through the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) and heterotrimeric GTPases. We examined neuron/neuroblastoma hybrid F11 cells and found that these cells were killed by 30 g/ml ApoE4, but not by 30 g/ml
... ApoE4-induced death occurred with typical features for apoptosis in time-and dose-dependent manners, and was observed in SH-SY5Y neuroblastomas, but not in glioblastomas or non-neuronal Chinese hamster ovary cells. Activated, but not native, ␣2-macroglobulin suppressed this ApoE4 toxicity. Suppression by the antisense oligonucleotide to LRP and inhibition by low nanomolar concentrations of LRP-associated protein RAP provided evidence for the involvement of LRP. The involvement of heterotrimeric GTPases was demonstrated by the findings that (1) ApoE4-induced death was suppressed by pertussis toxin (PTX), but not by heat-inactivated PTX; and (2) transfection with PTX-resistant mutant cDNAs of G␣ i restored the toxicity of ApoE4 restricted by PTX. We thus conclude that one of the neurotoxic mechanisms triggered by ApoE4 is to activate a cell type-specific apoptogenic program involving LRP and the G i class of GTPases and that the apoE4 gene may play a direct role in the pathogenesis of AD and other forms of dementia.