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Journal of Mammalogy
We estimated survival, fertility, and realized and asymptotic population growth rates from 1981 to 2002 for a protected population of black bears (Ursus americanus) in the southern Appalachian Mountains. We used Akaike's information criterion to assess the time interval for averaging observations that was best for estimating vital rates for our study, given our yearly sample sizes. The temporal symmetry approach allowed us to directly assess population growth and to address all losses and gainsdoi:10.1644/1545-1542(2005)86[1029:laosfa]2.0.co;2 fatcat:qmnymrqimrejtedsrvduuxasga