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In this paper, the problem of outer beamformer design based only on channel statistic information is considered for two-stage beamforming for multi-user massive MIMO downlink, and the problem is approached based on signal-to-leakage-plus-noise ratio (SLNR). To eliminate the dependence on the instantaneous channel state information, a lower bound on the average SLNR is derived by assuming zero-forcing (ZF) inner beamforming, and an outer beamformer design method that maximizes the lower bound ondoi:10.1109/tcomm.2015.2429646 fatcat:3rwnhb5evfgbnl2rjz6hew5g7u