NEEDS ANALYSIS: THE POTENTIAL ROLE IN EAP PRE-SESSIONAL COURSE DESIGN
PEOPLE International Journal of Social Sciences
The purpose of this research is to analyse the potential role of needs analysis in the process of English for Academic Purposes pre-sessional course design for English-medium university student candidates in Indonesia. Based on relevant literature about the nature of needs analysis related to learners' descriptions and their context, the contribution of needs analysis on course design/implementation is discussed. The paper considers learning-centred approaches as an appropriate way to define
... te way to define learners' needs in the process of negotiating the meaning, deciding what will be achieved, and how the learners learn, especially for English-medium university student candidates in Indonesia. By having these steps, the EAP course could be developed in accordance with learning objectives of every group of learners. Finally, a plan of conducting a needs analysis through questionnaires implemented for the learners before designing the programme is described. The result of the needs analysis conducted could benefit some institutions, instructors, and the learners in designing their EAP courses. Keywords English for Academic Purposes, English for Medium of Instruction, Learning-Centered Approach, Needs Analysis PEOPLE: International Journal of Social Sciences ISSN 2454-5899 712 The Contribute of Needs Analysis to the Course Design and Implementation of the Learners In this situation, since the learners might not attend the same international study programmes, their needs on what and how they would prefer to learn require further exploration. Learners who are planning to continue their study programme in English departments may be classified into the same group, and still, the learner needs and learning needs should be gained in order to design an appropriate EAP course for them. Information which could be usefully collected are their 'target situation' as university students, their existing knowledge and abilities, their educational background as Senior High School level, their preferred learning styles, their desires and the resources which fit their needs. This type of information related to needs analysis on EAP course design could be completed by some information about learners' profile which consists of level, maturity and their background which is very important to define learning groups. Then, the objectives are developed for the learners as well as the means, such as management, staff, resources and materials, which are developed and affected by variables and constraints. Afterwards, syllabus design with appropriate type including the content and components of language and skills and the timetable, is developed. Based on the needs analysis, the methodology is created to organise the learning and teaching process which consists of individual and groups activities, and requires development of teaching materials. Finally, the assessment, evaluation and feedback format are developed to complete the steps of course design and implementation based on needs analysis (Jordan, 1997, p. 57). Relating to devising syllabuses and content, there are some factors which affect the development, they are needs, aims, means which consists of the teachers, materials, equipment, facilities, time, and finance, and variables or constraints which consist of limitations of the 'means' which become 'constraints'. The types of syllabus which is appropriate to this EAP course design could be content or product syllabus which focusing on the end result of learners' grammatical, structural, language form, national-functional, situational, topic and content-based.