Crosstalk between Stress Granules, Exosomes, Tumour Antigens, and Immune Cells: Significance for Cancer Immunity

Vinoth Kumar Kothandan, Sangeetha Kothandan, Do Hee Kim, Youngro Byun, Yong-kyu Lee, In-Kyu Park, Seung Rim Hwang
2020 Vaccines  
RNA granules and exosomes produced by tumour cells under various stresses in the microenvironment act as critical determinants of cell survival by promoting angiogenesis, cancer metastasis, chemoresistance, and immunosuppression. Meanwhile, developmental cancer/testis (CT) antigens that are normally sequestered in male germ cells of the testes, but which are overexpressed in malignant tumour cells, can function as tumour antigens triggering immune responses. As CT antigens are potential vaccine
more » ... e potential vaccine candidates for use in cancer immunotherapy, they could be targeted together with crosstalk between stress granules, exosomes, and immune cells for a synergistic effect. In this review, we describe the effects of exosomes and exosomal components presented to the recipient cells under different types of stresses on immune cells and cancer progression. Furthermore, we discuss their significance for cancer immunity, as well as the outlook for their future application.
doi:10.3390/vaccines8020172 pmid:32276342 fatcat:at2buytirncath3w7bdtwigwea