Depressive symptoms predict cognitive decline and dementia in older people independently of cerebral white matter changes: the LADIS study
Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry
Depressive symptoms have been associated with an increase risk of cognitive decline. Our aim was to evaluate the influence of depressive symptoms on cognition over time in independent older people, accounting for the severity of white matter changes (WMC). The LADIS prospective multi-national European study evaluated the impact of WMC on the transition of independent older subjects into disability. Subjects were evaluated annually over a 3 year period with a comprehensive clinical protocol and
... nical protocol and a neuropsychological battery. Previous episodes of depression and current depressive symptoms were collected during each interview. If cognitive decline occurred it was classified as "cognitive decline not dementia" or dementia. MRI was performed at entry and at the end of the study. 639 subjects were included (74.1 ± 5 years old, 55% women, 9.6 ± 3.8 years of schooling). Depressive symptoms at baseline but not previous depressive episodes were an independent predictor of cognitive impairment (dementia and cognitive impairment not dementia) during follow-up, independently of the effect of severity of WMC.