Image charge models for accurate construction of the electrostatic self-energy of 3D layered nanostructure devices
Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter
Efficient analytical image charge models are derived for the full spatial variation of the electrostatic self-energy of electrons in semiconductor nanostructures that arises from dielectric mismatch using semi-classical analysis. The methodology provides a fast compact and physically transparent computation for advanced device modeling. The underlying semiclassical model for the self-energy has been established and validated during recent years and depends on a slight modification of the
... ation of the macroscopic static dielectric constants for individual homogeneous dielectric regions. The model has been validated for point charges as close as one interatomic spacing to a sharp interface. A brief introduction to image charge methodology is followed by a discussion and demonstration of the traditional failure of the methodology to derive the electrostatic potential at arbitrary distances from a source charge. However, the self-energy involves the local limit of the difference between the electrostatic Green functions for the full dielectric heterostructure and the homogeneous equivalent. It is shown that high convergence may be achieved for the image charge method for this local limit. A simple re-normalisation technique is introduced to reduce the number of image terms to a minimum. A number of progressively complex 3D models are evaluated analytically and compared with high precision numerical computations. Accuracies of 1% are demonstrated. Introducing a simple technique for modeling the transition of the self-energy between disparate dielectric structures we generate an analytical model that describes the self-energy as a function of position within the source, drain and gated channel of a silicon wrap round gate field effect transistor on a scale of a few nanometers cross-section. At such scales the self-energies become large (typically up to ~100 meV) close to the interfaces as well as along the channel. The screening of a gated structure is shown to reduce the self-energy relative to un-gated nanowires.