Coagulation–fragmentation duality, Poisson–Dirichlet distributions and random recursive trees

Rui Dong, Christina Goldschmidt, James B. Martin
2006 The Annals of Applied Probability  
In this paper we give a new example of duality between fragmentation and coagulation operators. Consider the space of partitions of mass (i.e., decreasing sequences of nonnegative real numbers whose sum is 1) and the two-parameter family of Poisson--Dirichlet distributions $\operatorname {PD}(\alpha,\theta)$ that take values in this space. We introduce families of random fragmentation and coagulation operators $\mathrm {Frag}_{\alpha}$ and $\mathrm {Coag}_{\alpha,\theta}$, respectively, with
more » ... spectively, with the following property: if the input to $\mathrm {Frag}_{\alpha}$ has $\operatorname {PD}(\alpha,\theta)$ distribution, then the output has $\operatorname {PD}(\alpha,\theta+1)$ distribution, while the reverse is true for $\mathrm {Coag}_{\alpha,\theta}$. This result may be proved using a subordinator representation and it provides a companion set of relations to those of Pitman between $\operatorname {PD}(\alpha,\theta)$ and $\operatorname {PD}(\alpha\beta,\theta)$. Repeated application of the $\mathrm {Frag}_{\alpha}$ operators gives rise to a family of fragmentation chains. We show that these Markov chains can be encoded naturally by certain random recursive trees, and use this representation to give an alternative and more concrete proof of the coagulation--fragmentation duality.
doi:10.1214/105051606000000655 fatcat:gg6ds5xibzgk7ecsdjdk4zssf4