Binding-Linked Protonation of a DNA Minor-Groove Agent

Binh Nguyen, Jaroslav Stanek, W. David Wilson
2006 Biophysical Journal  
The energetics for binding of a diphenyl diamidine antitrypanosomal agent CGP 40215A to DNA have been studied by spectroscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry, and surface plasmon resonance biosensor methods. Both amidines are positively charged under experimental conditions, but the linking group for the two phenyl amidines has a pK a of 6.3 that is susceptible to a protonation process. Spectroscopic studies indicate an increase of 2.7 pK a units in the linking group when the compound binds
more » ... an A/T minor-groove site. Calorimetric titrations in different buffers and pH conditions support the protonlinkage process and are in a good agreement with spectroscopic titrations. The two methods established a proton-uptake profile as a function of pH. The exothermic enthalpy of complex formation varies with different pH conditions. The observed binding enthalpy increases as a function of temperature indicating a negative heat capacity change that is typical for DNA minor-groove binders. Solvent accessible surface area calculations suggest that surface burial accounts for about one-half of the observed intrinsic negative heat capacity change. Biosensor and calorimetric experiments indicate that the binding affinities vary with pH values and salt concentrations due to protonation and electrostatic interactions. The surface plasmon resonance binding studies indicate that the charge density per phosphate in DNA hairpins is smaller than that in polymers. Energetic contributions from different factors were also estimated for the ligand/DNA complex.
doi:10.1529/biophysj.105.071381 pmid:16299076 pmcid:PMC1367283 fatcat:2x2ant7vtrhpppnsfevept3u4u