In Silico Analysis of Coding/Noncoding SNPs of Human RETN Gene and Characterization of Their Impact on Resistin Stability and Structure
Journal of Diabetes Research
Resistin (RETN) is a gene coding for proinflammatory adipokine called resistin secreted by macrophages in humans. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in RETN are linked to obesity and insulin resistance in various populations. Using dbSNP, 78 nonsynonymous SNPs (nsSNPs) were retrieved and tested on a PredictSNP 1.0 megaserver. Among these, 15 nsSNPs were predicted as highly deleterious and thus subjected to further analyses, such as conservation, posttranscriptional modifications, and
... cations, and stability. The 3D structure of human resistin was generated by homology modeling using Swiss model. Root-mean-square deviation (RMSD), hydrogen bonds (h-bonds), and interactions were estimated. Furthermore, UTRscan served to identify UTR functional SNPs. Among the 15 most deleterious nsSNPs, 13 were predicted to be highly conserved including variants in posttranslational modification sites. Stability analysis predicted 9 nsSNPs (I32S, C51Y, G58E, G58R, C78S, G79C, W98C, C103G, and C104Y) which can decrease protein stability with at least three out of the four algorithms used in this study. These nsSNPs were chosen for structural analysis. Both variants C51Y and C104Y showed the highest RMS deviations (1.137 Å and 1.308 Å, respectively) which were confirmed by the important decrease in total h-bonds. The analysis of hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions showed important differences between the native protein and the 9 mutants, particularly I32S, G79C, and C104Y. Six SNPs in the 3′UTR (rs920569876, rs74176247, rs1447199134, rs943234785, rs76346269, and rs78048640) were predicted to be implicated in polyadenylation signal. This study revealed 9 highly deleterious SNPs located in the human RETN gene coding region and 6 SNPs within the 3′UTR that may alter the protein structure. Interestingly, these SNPs are worth to be analyzed in functional studies to further elucidate their effect on metabolic phenotype occurrence.