Fully automated dose prediction using generative adversarial networks in prostate cancer patients
Although dose prediction for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has been accomplished by a deep learning approach, delineation of some structures is needed for the prediction. We sought to develop a fully automated dose-generation framework for IMRT of prostate cancer by entering the patient CT datasets without the contour information into a generative adversarial network (GAN) and to compare its prediction performance to a conventional prediction model trained from patient contours.
... patient contours. We propose a synthetic approach to translate patient CT datasets into a dose distribution for IMRT. The framework requires only paired-images, i.e., patient CT images and corresponding RT-doses. The model was trained from 81 IMRT plans of prostate cancer patients, and then produced the dose distribution for 9 test cases. To compare its prediction performance to that of another trained model, we created a model trained from structure images. Dosimetric parameters for the planning target volume (PTV) and organs at risk (OARs) were calculated from the generated and original dose distributions, and mean differences of dosimetric parameters were compared between the CT-based model and the structure-based model. The mean differences of all dosimetric parameters except for D98% and D95% for PTV were within approximately 2% and 3% of the prescription dose for OARs in the CT-based model, while the differences in the structure-based model were within approximately 1% for PTV and approximately 2% for OARs, with a mean prediction time of 5 seconds per patient. Accurate and rapid dose prediction was achieved by the learning of patient CT datasets by a GAN-based framework. The CT-based dose prediction could reduce the time required for both the iterative optimization process and the structure contouring, allowing physicians and dosimetrists to focus their expertise on more challenging cases.