Benchmarking Online Sequence-to-Sequence and Character-based Handwriting Recognition from IMU-Enhanced Pens [article]

Felix Ott, David Rügamer, Lucas Heublein, Tim Hamann, Jens Barth, Bernd Bischl, Christopher Mutschler
Handwriting is one of the most frequently occurring patterns in everyday life and with it come challenging applications such as handwriting recognition (HWR), writer identification, and signature verification. In contrast to offline HWR that only uses spatial information (i.e., images), online HWR (OnHWR) uses richer spatio-temporal information (i.e., trajectory data or inertial data). While there exist many offline HWR datasets, there is only little data available for the development of OnHWR
more » ... ethods as it requires hardware-integrated pens. This paper presents data and benchmark models for real-time sequence-to-sequence (seq2seq) learning and single character-based recognition. Our data is recorded by a sensor-enhanced ballpoint pen, yielding sensor data streams from triaxial accelerometers, a gyroscope, a magnetometer and a force sensor at 100Hz. We propose a variety of datasets including equations and words for both the writer-dependent and writer-independent tasks. We provide an evaluation benchmark for seq2seq and single character-based HWR using recurrent and temporal convolutional networks and Transformers combined with a connectionist temporal classification (CTC) loss and cross entropy losses. Our methods do not resort to language or lexicon models.
doi:10.48550/arxiv.2202.07036 fatcat:jf6rfjsqvzgvxp6smibgw5y2ae