Attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder and reward deficiency syndrome

Marlene Oscar Berman, Kenneth Blum, Thomas JH Chen, Eric Braverman, Roger Waite, William Downs, Vanessa Arcuri, Ali Notaro, Tomas Palomo, Comings
2008 Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment  
Molecular genetic studies have identified several genes that may mediate susceptibility to attention defi cit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A consensus of the literature suggests that when there is a dysfunction in the "brain reward cascade," especially in the dopamine system, causing a low or hypo-dopaminergic trait, the brain may require dopamine for individuals to avoid unpleasant feelings. This high-risk genetic trait leads to multiple drugseeking behaviors, because the drugs activate
more » ... se of dopamine, which can diminish abnormal cravings. Moreover, this genetic trait is due in part to a form of a gene (DRD 2 A1 allele) that prevents the expression of the normal laying down of dopamine receptors in brain reward sites. This gene, and others involved in neurophysiological processing of specifi c neurotransmitters, have been associated with defi cient functions and predispose individuals to have a high risk for addictive, impulsive, and compulsive behavioral propensities. It has been proposed that genetic variants of dopaminergic genes and other "reward genes" are important common determinants of reward defi ciency syndrome (RDS), which we hypothesize includes ADHD as a behavioral subtype. We further hypothesize that early diagnosis through genetic polymorphic identifi cation in combination with DNA-based customized nutraceutical administration to young children may attenuate behavioral symptoms associated with ADHD. Moreover, it is concluded that dopamine and serotonin releasers might be useful therapeutic adjuncts for the treatment of other RDS behavioral subtypes, including addictions.
doi:10.2147/ndt.s2627 fatcat:t3tcqvvj6jcq3lyyyrwq62kx2u