1866 The Lancet  
motion to the effect that each of the bodies named in Schedule A totheMedical Acts should be recommended to communicate confidentially to the registrar of the Council the names of candidates who were rejected, and that those candidates should not be eligible for re-examination by any of the bodies till after the expiration of three months, was negatived. Several other resolutions of a formal character, including votes of thanks to the Treasurers (Dr. Sharpey and Dr. Quain), to Dr. Andrew Wood
more » ... Chairman of the Business Committee, and to the President, were then passed, and the sitting of the Council terminated. PROFESSOR HUXLEY'S LECTURES AT THE ROYAL COLLEGE OF SURGEONS. RETURNING once more to ordinary mammals, and selecting I as a type that well-known animal the specific name of which z , is Fainiliag-is, we find the head moderate in size ; the snout produced, with its extremity bare and flexible; eyes with the ' ' usual eyelids and eyelashes; ears with a large and movable ' , concha; hind limbs as large as the front ones; and locomotion digitigrade-i. e., that the animal walks on the toes and not on the palms and soles, as the bears, nor yet on the nails, as in the horse and other ungulates. The anterior extremity is provided with five digits, of which the pollex is very short ; the posterior one has only four digits, the hallux being rudimentary and generally clawless, while all the other digits have curved claws. There is a moderate tail, the testicles are contained in a scrotum, the penis is slung in a sheath beneath the abdomen, and the mammaa are abdominal. The skeleton of the dog is a good example of an average mammalian one. There are seven cervical, thirteen dorsal, and seven lumbar vertebrae; the atlas has great transverse processes, and the spine of the axis is considerably anteroposteriorly extended. The spines of the anterior dorsal vertebrse incline backwards; those of the posterior dorsal and of the lumbar vertebrae, forwards; the metapophyses and anapophyses are considerable; the tail has no large chevron bones; there are nine true and four floating ribs, the former being connected to the sternum by sternal cartilages, which ossify with age. The eight sternebrse are laterally compressed. In the skull we find long nasal bones and distinct lachrymals, each of the latter with a canal. The anterior narrowing of the cranial cavity and considerable supraorbital processes remind us of 0<<M*Mt. There is a large sagittal crest, and the zygomata are much laterally expanded for the voluminous temporal muscles and vertically arched for the masseter. The mandible has a high coronoid process, but the angle is nearly obsolete, the prominence generally so called being probably rather a greatly developed supra-angular process. The symphysis is strong, and the condyle bounded behind by a strong postglenoidal process. There is an alisphenoid canal, as remarked by the late Mr. H. N. Turner, jun., in his valuable paper on the Crania of the Cccrrzivora in the Proceedings of the Zoological Society" for 1848 ; also the tympanic overhangs the foramen lacerum posterius, the carotid canal extending thence forwards between the tympanic and the periotic. The vomer spreads out beneath the true olfactory chamber, as in the seals. The maxillary turbinal is large and ramified, but not so large as in the seals, while the proper olfactory turbinals are larger than in them ; these last project up slightly into the frontal sinuses, which are prolonged back into the supraorbital processes, and often contain linguatulse. There is no bony clavicle, and in the scapula the supra-and infra-spinous fosm are about equal. The two radial bones of the proximal row of the carpus are united into a scapho-lunar bone. The phalanges are of the normal number, and each ultimate one sheaths the base of a nail. The tuberosity of the os calcis has a pulleylike form. The hallux is represented by a metatarsal bone, which may have one or even two phalanges. The muscular system is, on the whole, wonderfully like that of higher animals, but there are some peculiarities of interest. The panniculus carnosus is considerable (though small compared to the same muscle in the aquatic mammals), and moves the skin. The external oblique muscle presents a singular and interesting foreshadowing, as it were, of the condition presented by it in the Marsupialia, for there is a triangular cartilage, or fibro-cartilage, (on the anterior margin of the pubes,) to which the pillars of the inguinal ring are attached, which gives origin, in part, to the rectus, and which has the cremaster sweeping round it. Douglas noticed a muscle, which he named levator humeri proprius, with a tendinous intersection. This intersection represents the clavicle, the part above it corresponds to the clavicular part of the trapezius, while the part below it answers to the clavicular part of the deltoid. There is a tracheloacromial, but no subclavius or omohyoid. The larynx is provided with a large hyo-epiglottic muscle, and the latissimus dorsi sends down a slip to the olecranon. Although there can be no movement of supination, there is a supinator brevis and a pronator quadratus. The extensor communis digitorum divides into four tendons, which are inserted into sesamoid cartilages, placed at the junction of the first and second phalanges of each digit. There is an extensor secondi internodii and indicis, and the extensor minimi digiti divides into three tendons, which go to the third, fourth, and fifth digits respectively. Thus all the digits have double extensors, a condition which throws an interesting light on the apparently capricious arrangement of the extensors in man, which is rather to be considered as a relic of a condition more largely and homogeneously developed in lower animals than as a peculiar and special creation; nevertheless the extensor primi internodii appears to be absolutely confined to man. All the flexors are present except the palmaris longus, yet, strange to say, there is a distinct palmaris brevis. A ligament retains the ultimate phalanx in a rather bent-up position, as in the cat, but to a much less extent than in the latter animal. The fifth digit has all the small muscles which exist in man, as also has the pollex, with the exception, perhaps, of an opponens. The interossei are typical, forming a double-bellied flexor brevis for each digit, but each sending on a delicate tendon to one of the cartilaginous dorsal sesamoids. The plantaris is greatly developed, passing through the pulley at the end of the os calcis, and giving origin to the perforated tendons. The parotid gland is large, and there is an accessory parotid, but the sublingual glands are small. The palate is very long, reaching back to the epiglottis. The stomach is simple, the csecum larger than is generally the case in the (7a'nM<M'a, and spirally coiled. As is so often the case in the last-mentioned order, there are two glands near the anus, which pour their secretion into the rectum. The intestines are only five or six times the length of the body; the liver is deeply subdivided, and there is a gall-bladder. The teeth in the upper jaw consist, on each side, of three incisors (the most external one being almost canine-like), a large canine, then three premolars, formed much like the teeth of Squalodon; behind these is another premolar, of much larger size, and which is the superior carnapial or sectorial tooth; and behind this, again, are two smaller teeth, which are true molars, and from their form are called tuberculous ones.
doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(02)67314-3 fatcat:wec46ewipzexzaczzxu772rwse