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Vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes were synthesized by electron cyclotron resonance chemical vapor deposition on Ni-coated glass substrates at temperatures as low as 400°C. Negative self-biases were induced to the substrates by radio frequency plasma to give ion bombardment to the growing surface. An increase of self-bias voltages from Ϫ50 to Ϫ200 V resulted in an evolution of the microstructures from amorphous carbon to nanorods, subsequently to nanotubes. Nanotubes grown abovedoi:10.1116/1.1580116 fatcat:yx7563qi5jfbjhdrfpzzfxto4m