Kritik Nalar Hermeneutika Paul Ricoeur

Daden Robi Rahman
2016 Kalimah  
Hermeneutics was born and developed in the West, specifically in response to the theological problem of Christianity, and always claimed to be an effective solution to the interpretation of Scripture. With existence of various schools, hermeneutics has also various shades and resulted different interpretations. Such as Schleiermacher, followed by Wilhelm Dilthey and Emilio Betti as initiators of hermeneutics methodology. Martin Heidegger and Gadamer followed with their ontological hermeneutics,
more » ... gical hermeneutics, and continued by Habermas with his critical hermeneutics. After that, the critical ontological hermeneutics initiated by either Paul Ricoeur, or Rudolf Bultman with his theological hermeneutics, and Derrida with his deconstructive hermeneutics. Among those schools, the writers interested in reviewing the hermeneutics of Paul Ricoeur which represents a distinctive theory of interpretation. His idea considered to be a bridge of the fierce debate between methodological traditions and philosophical traditions represented by Emilio Betti and Hans Georg Gadamer. The thought of Ricoeur was also claimed as a mediator between the positions of the romantic tradition of Schleiermacher and Dilthey with philosophy hermeneutic by Martin Heidegger. In another side, he was placed as a combination between the two great philosophical tradition, that's German phenomenology and France structuralism. Furthermore, the thought of Ricoeur is a revision to the thought of Dilthey about explanation (erklären) and understanding (verstehen). Through this paper, the writer will attempt to unravel the thought of Paul Ricoeur, and in the end, will clearly known the position of Ricoeur among other hermeneutics initiators. Abstrak Hermeneutika yang lahir dan berkembang di Barat, khususnya sebagai respons terhadap problem teologis agama Kristen, selalu diklaim sebagai solusi efektif dalam penafsiran kitab suci. Dengan berbagai aliran yang terdapat di dalamnya, hermeneutika pun memiliki berbagai corak dan hasil interpretasi yang berbeda-beda. Ada Schleiermacher, diikuti Wilhelm Dilthey dan Emilio Betti sebagai penggagas hermeneutika metodologis. Kemudian Martin Heidegger dan Gadamer dengan hermeneutika ontologisnya, dilanjutkan Habermas dengan hermeneutika kritis. Setelah itu, hermeneutika ontologis kritis yang digagas Paul Ricoeur, Rudolf Bultman dengan hermeneutika teologis, dan Derrida dengan hermeneutika dekonstruksi. Di antara alira-aliran itu, penulis tertarik mengkaji hermeneutika versi Paul Ricoeur yang dianggap merepresentasikan kekhasan teori interpretasinya dari yang lain. Idenya dianggap menjembatani perdebatan sengit dalam peta hermeneutika antara tradisi metodologis dan tradisi filosofis yang masing-masing diwakili oleh Emilio Betti dan Hans Georg Gadamer. Pemikiran Ricoeur juga diklaim sebagai mediator dari posisi tradisi hermeneutika romantis dari Schleiermacher dan Dilthey dengan hermeneutika filosofisnya Martin Heidegger. Pada sisi lain, ia ditempatkan sebagai perpaduan antara dua tradisi filsafat besar, yaitu fenomenologi Jerman dan strukturalisme Perancis. Selanjutnya, pemikiran Ricoeur merupakan sebuah revisi bagi pemikiran Dilthey tentang penjelasan explanation (erklären) dan pemahaman understanding (verstehen). Melalui makalah ini, penulis akan mencoba mengurai pemikiranpemikiran Paul Ricoeur sehingga terlihat dengan jelas posisi Ricoeur di antara tokohtokoh penggagas hermeneutika lainnya.
doi:10.21111/klm.v14i1.360 fatcat:mfrwc2yqbnhvldm5vwomu357eu