Identification of spring wheat germplasm resistant to heavy metals for create clean wheat growing technology
International Journal of Biology and Chemistry
The aim of this study was to identify wheat germplasm resistant to heavy metals (zinc, cadmium), which are priority pollutants in eastern Kazakhstan region, and identification donors for breeding and promising forms of wheat that are resistance to heavy metals and destined for agricultural production. The objects of research are different genotypes of spring wheat from the collection of the East Kazakhstan Research Institute of Agriculture. In field experiment plants were grown on scientific
... wn on scientific test site, under natural environmental pollution, in the suburban area of Ust-Kamenogorsk city, East Kazakhstan region. The content of heavy metals in plants was determined by atomic absorption on the device AAnalyst 300 of "Perkin Elmer". Experiments and determination of physiological parameters were conducted by the method of field experiment. The study of the accumulation of heavy metals in components of different genotypes of winter wheat in conditions of natural pollution has shown the genotypic differences in the accumulation of zinc and cadmium in plant seeds. The study of investigated heavy metals accumulation in the spring wheat seeds of East-Kazakhstan Agricultural Research Institute collection showed, that in terms of cadmium accumulation, the most resistant varieties of spring wheat are Ulbinka, Zaulbinka and Omskaya-18. Upon indicator of accumulation of zinc, the most resistant varieties are Samal and Kutulukskaya. Spring wheat varieties Ulbinka, Zaulbinka and Omskaya-18 can be recommended for further use in breeding for resistance to the accumulation of cadmium in the grain. Samal spring wheat varieties can be recommended for further use in breeding for resistance to the accumulation of zinc in the grain. The most harvest from plots has spring wheat varieties: Ulbinka-25, Glubochanka, Erythrospermum-616 and Altai. It is connected to a large number of grains per ear, high grain weight per ear, high productive tillering and good survival during the spring-summer growing season. Varieties Ulbinka-25 and Omskaya-18 can be recommended for cultivation on soils contaminated with cadmium, as these varieties of spring wheat accumulate least of cadmium in the seeds and at the same time are characterized by high yields and good survival during the spring-summer growing season in a polymetallic contamination of soil.