Endocardial Endothelial Dysfunction and Unknown Polymorphic Composite Accumulation in Heart Failure
The accumulation of unknown polymorphic composites in the endocardium damages the endocardial endothelium (EE). However, the composition and role of unknown polymorphic composites in heart failure (HF) progression remain unclear. Here, we aimed to explore composite deposition during endocardium damage and HF progression. Adult male Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into two HF groups—angiotensin II-induced HF and left anterior descending artery ligation-induced HF. Heart tissues from patients
... had undergone coronary artery bypass graft surgery (non-HF) and those with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) were collected. EE damage, polymorphic unknown composite accumulation, and elements in deposits were examined. HF progression reduced the expression of CD31 in the endocardium, impaired endocardial integrity, and exposed the myofibrils and mitochondria. The damaged endocardial surface showed the accumulation of unknown polymorphic composites. In the animal HF model, especially HF caused by myocardial infarction, the weight and atomic percentages of O, Na, and N in the deposited composites were significantly higher than those of the other groups. The deposited composites in the human HF heart section (DCM) had a significantly higher percentage of Na and S than the other groups, whereas the percentage of C and Na in the DCM and ICM groups was significantly higher than those of the control group. HF causes widespread EE dysfunction, and EndMT was accompanied by polymorphic composites of different shapes and elemental compositions, which further damage and deteriorate heart function.