Post-translational Modification Crosstalk and Hotspots in Sirtuin Interactors Implicated in Cardiovascular Diseases
Frontiers in Genetics
Sirtuins are protein deacetylases that play a protective role in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), as well as many other diseases. Absence of sirtuins can lead to hyperacetylation of both nuclear and mitochondrial proteins leading to metabolic dysregulation. The protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) are known to crosstalk among each other to bring about complex phenotypic outcomes. Various PTM types such as acetylation, ubiquitination, and phosphorylation, and so on, drive
... l regulation and metabolism, but such crosstalks are poorly understood. We integrated protein-protein interactions (PPI) and PTMs from several databases to integrate information on 1,251 sirtuin-interacting proteins, of which 544 are associated with cardiac diseases. Based on the ∼100,000 PTM sites obtained for sirtuin interactors, we observed that the frequency of PTM sites (83 per protein), as well as PTM types (five per protein), is higher than the global average for human proteome. We found that ∼60-70% PTM sites fall into ordered regions. Approximately 83% of the sirtuin interactors contained at least one competitive crosstalk (in situ) site, with half of the sites occurring in CVD-associated proteins. A large proportion of identified crosstalk sites were observed for acetylation and ubiquitination competition. We identified 614 proteins containing PTM hotspots (≥5 PTM sites) and 133 proteins containing crosstalk hotspots (≥3 crosstalk sites). We observed that a large proportion of disease-associated sequence variants were found in PTM motifs of CVD proteins. We identified seven proteins (TP53, LMNA, MAPT, ATP2A2, NCL, APEX1, and HIST1H3A) containing disease-associated variants in PTM and crosstalk hotspots. This is the first comprehensive bioinformatics analysis on sirtuin interactors with respect to PTMs and their crosstalks. This study forms a platform for generating interesting hypotheses that can be tested for a deeper mechanistic understanding gained or derived from big-data analytics.