The Spillover of African Swine Fever in Western Poland Revealed Its Estimated Origin on the Basis of O174L, K145R, MGF 505-5R and IGR I73R/I329L Genomic Sequences
The African swine fever epidemic occurred in Poland at the beginning of 2014 and, up to date, the disease has been spreading mainly in the eastern part of the country. Unexpectedly, in November 2019 an infected wild boar case was confirmed in Lubuskie voivodship in western Poland. During the following weeks, several dozen African swine fever virus (ASFV)-positive animals were notified in the neighboring area, causing severe concern regarding further spread of the disease to the mostly pig-dense
... he mostly pig-dense region in Poland, namely, Wielkopolskie voivodship. Moreover, almost a year after, several infected wild boar cases were confirmed for the first time in Germany, just beyond the Polish border, sending out a shock wave through the global pig market. The whole genome sequence of ASFV, isolated from the first case of ASF in western Poland, and three selected viruses from other affected areas, revealed the tandem repeat and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variations in reference to the Georgia 2007/1 strain. These data, supported by the conventional sequencing of selected genomic regions from a total of 154 virus samples isolated between 2017 and 2020 in Poland, shed a new light on pathogen epidemiology. The sequence variations within the O174L gene detected in this study showed that cases identified in western Poland might be originating from the so-called southern Warsaw cluster. Moreover, the viruses originating from the northern Warsaw cluster do not possess single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mutations within the K145R and MGF 505-5R genes, which are specific to all of the other Polish ASFV strains. These results led to a conclusion of their distinct origin. Supporting these results, the nucleotide sequencing of I73R/I329L intergenic region revealed its new, previously undescribed variant, called IGR IV, with an additional three tandem repeats of 10 nucleotides in comparison to the reference sequence of the Georgia 2007/1 strain.