Impact of dynamics, entanglement, and Markovian noise on the fidelity of few-qubit digital quantum simulation [article]

Max D. Porter, Ilon Joseph
2022 arXiv   pre-print
For quantum computations without error correction, the dynamics of a simulation can strongly influence the overall fidelity decay rate as well as the relative impact of different noise processes on the fidelity. Theoretical models of Markovian noise that include incoherent Lindblad noise, gate-based errors, and stochastic Hamiltonian noise qualitatively agree that greater diffusion and entanglement throughout Hilbert space typically increase the fidelity decay rate. Simulations of the
more » ... ient quantum sawtooth map support these predictions, and experiments performed on three qubits on the IBM-Q quantum hardware platform at fixed gate count qualitatively confirm the predictions. A pure depolarizing noise model, often used within randomized benchmarking (RB) theory, cannot explain the observed effect, but gate-based Lindblad models can provide an explanation. They can also estimate the effective Lindblad coherence times during gates, and find a consistent 2-3× shorter effective T_2 dephasing time than reported for idle qubits. Additionally, the observed error per CNOT gate exceeds IBM-Q's reported value from RB by 3.0× during localized dynamics and 4.5× during diffusive dynamics. This demonstrates the magnitude by which RB understates error in a complex quantum simulation due to dynamics and crosstalk.
arXiv:2206.04829v1 fatcat:6o4badof3zhohmdowmnj3jf3sq