Kidney Targeting and Puncturing During Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy: Recent Advances and Future Perspectives
Journal of endourology
and Purpose: Precise needle puncture of the kidney is a challenging and essential step for successful percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). Many devices and surgical techniques have been developed to easily achieve suitable renal access. This article presents a critical review to address the methodologies and techniques for conducting kidney targeting and the puncture step during PCNL. Based on this study, research paths are also provided for PCNL procedure improvement. Methods: Most relevant
... ks concerning PCNL puncture were identified by a search of Medline/PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and Scopus databases from 2007 to December 2012. Two authors independently reviewed the studies. Results: A total of 911 abstracts and 346 full-text articles were assessed and discussed; 52 were included in this review as a summary of the main contributions to kidney targeting and puncturing. Conclusions: Multiple paths and technologic advances have been proposed in the field of urology and minimally invasive surgery to improve PCNL puncture. The most relevant contributions, however, have been provided by the application of medical imaging guidance, new surgical tools, motion tracking systems, robotics, and image processing and computer graphics. Despite the multiple research paths for PCNL puncture guidance, no widely acceptable solution has yet been reached, and it remains an active and challenging research field. Future developments should focus on real-time methods, robust and accurate algorithms, and radiation free imaging techniques. Abbreviations Used CT ¼ computed tomography DOFs ¼ degrees of freedom IVU ¼ intravenous urography MIS ¼ minimally invasive surgery MR ¼ magnetic resonance PCNL ¼ percutaneous nephrolithotomy SWL ¼ shockwave lithotripsy 3D ¼ three dimensional 2D ¼ two dimensional US ¼ ultrasonography 834 RODRIGUES ET AL.