Ultrastructural Changes of Neuronal Mitochondria After Transient and Permanent Cerebral Ischemia

N. J. Solenski, C. G. diPierro, P. A. Trimmer, A.-L. Kwan, G. A. Helms
2002 Stroke  
and Purpose-Mitochondrial swelling is one of the most striking and initial ultrastructural changes after acute brain ischemia. The purpose of the present study was to examine the role of reperfusion of the cerebral cortex after transient focal cerebral ischemia on neuronal mitochondrial damage. Methods-Male Sprague-Dawley rats (nϭ16) were subjected to either temporary or permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery and bilateral carotid arteries. Three experimental conditions were
more » ... tions were compared: group I, permanent ischemia (3, 5, and 24 hours); group II, transient ischemia (2, 24 hours of reperfusion); and sham surgery. Anesthetized rats were killed by cardiac perfusion, and brain tissue was removed ipsilaterally and contralaterally from the ischemic core section of the frontoparietal cortex. Fixed tissue was prepared for electron microscopic examination, and electron microscopic thin sections of random neurons were photographed. Perinuclear neuronal mitochondria were analyzed in a blinded manner for qualitative ultrastructural changes (compared with sham control) by 2 independent investigators using an objective grading system. Results-Cortical neuronal mitochondria exposed to severe ischemic/reperfusion conditions demonstrated dramatic signs of injury in the form of condensation, increased matrix density, and deposits of electron-dense material followed by disintegration by 24 hours. In contrast, mitochondria exposed to an equivalent time of permanent ischemia demonstrated increasing loss of matrix density with pronounced swelling followed by retention of their shape by 24 hours. Conclusions-Neuronal mitochondria undergoing transient versus permanent ischemia exhibit significantly different patterns of injury. Structural damage to neuronal mitochondria of the neocortex occurs more acutely and to a greater extent during the reperfusion phase in comparison to ischemic conditions alone. Further research is in progress to delineate the role of oxygen free radical production in the observed mitochondrial damage during postischemic reoxygenation. (Stroke. 2002;33:816-824.)
doi:10.1161/hs0302.104541 pmid:11872909 fatcat:7iu3apaesvfbrljgbgsshxj2ee