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Renewable fuel standards, low carbon fuel standards, and ethanol subsidies are popular policies to incentivize ethanol production and reduce emissions from transportation. Compared to carbon trading, these policies lead to large shifts in agricultural activity and unexpected social costs. We simulate the 2022 Federal Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) and find that energy crop production increases by 39 million acres. Landuse costs from erosion and habitat loss are between $277 and $693 million. Adoi:10.3386/w19636 fatcat:4ytdrop6f5holkhusbtf4rl7lu