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As much as OpenStack promised a utopian future where an application could be written once and target multiple clouds that run OpenStack, the reality was that vendor choice leaked through the abstractions to the point where the end user must know about deployment and configuration details, compromising interoperability and favoring vendor lock-in. Shade is a middleware written in Python by the OpenStack community which stands between users and clouds, abstracting vendor differences in order tofatcat:kpwei6o5t5c3zm4rfickcwpvte