Membrane energization by proton pumps is important for compartmentalization of drugs and toxins: a new type of active transport

Y Moriyama
1996 Journal of Experimental Biology  
Many organelles are energized by proton pumps: mitochondria form an inside-negative membrane potential by means of the respiratory chain and endomembrane structures, such as lysosomes and synaptic vesicles, establish an internal acidic pH by means of a vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase). Various amphipathic drugs such as local anesthetics and neuron blockers are accumulated in acidic organelles upon energization by proton pumps. However, this process does not require any transporters specific
more » ... for the drugs: these drugs penetrate through the lipid bilayer against a concentration gradient so as to accumulate inside the energized organelles. Essentially the same transport process takes place in liposomes that have been reconstituted with purified V- or F-ATPase. Various hydrophobic cations are also accumulated in mitochondria by a similar mechanism. The energy-dependent but transporter-independent accumulation does not belong to the known transport categories and seems to represent a new type of transport which may be important for understanding the mode of action of drugs and toxins.
pmid:8699152 fatcat:jadnma4fdrdhrbwr6au22zypbi